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Table 12 displays the penetration depths for elements contained in a cement. The typical particle size is smaller than 75 µm. When the penetration depth is compared with the particle size, it can be seen that the elements from sodium to potassium can only be analyzed to one particle layer; calcium to iron to two particle layers; and first after iron in three particle layers.

This clearly shows the dependence of the measuring signal on the particle size (see Fig. 37), the arrangement of the particles and thus, the homogeneity of the sample. It also shows the limits for analytical accuracy for XRF in a solid material.   

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